Day 2 :
- Infection and Immune System| Microbes and Infections | Infection Pathogen Biology |Infection Prevention & Control| Healthcare Infectious Diseases | Vector Borne Infectious Diseases | Microbes and Infections
Location: Berlin, Germany
University of Oslo
The Center for the Biology of Chronic Disease (CBCD)
Title: Can herbal treatment be better than the leading drugs? A comparison of Gene-Eden-VIR/ Novirin, acyclovir and valacyclovir in oral herpes
Time : 10:00-10:25
Hanan Polansky is the Director of the Center for the Biology of Chronic Disease (CBCD). He is also developer of Computer Intuition, a psycholinguistic-based datamining program that analyzes scientific text and assigns a rating to all ideas found in the text.
Background: Our previous papers showed that suppressive or preventive treatment with the herbal Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin reduced the number and duration of genital herpes outbreaks with no adverse effects. These studies also revealed that the herbal Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin is mostly superior to acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir drugs in genital herpes. This study tested the effect of Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin in oral herpes (also called cold sores and fever blisters).
Methods: The framework of the study was a retrospective chart review. The study included 68 participants. The participants took 1-4 capsules per day over a period of 2-36 months. The study included two FDA recommended controls: baseline and a no-treatment.
Results: Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin was effective in 89.3% of participants. The treatment reduced the mean number of outbreaks per year from 6.0 and 3.6 in the control groups to 2.0 in the treatment group (P<0.0001 and P=0.07, respectively). Gene- Eden-VIR/Novirin reduced the mean duration of outbreaks from 9.8 and 5.8 days in the control groups to 3.2 days in the treatment group (P<0.0001 and P=0.02, respectively). There were no reports of adverse experiences. Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin was compared to acyclovir and valacyclovir in six tests. In all tests, Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin showed higher efficacy. Gene- Eden-VIR/Novirin also showed superior safety.
Conclusions: This clinical study showed that suppressive or preventive treatment with the herbal Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin reduced the number and duration of outbreaks in oral herpes without any adverse effects. The study also showed that the herbal Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin had better clinical effects than acyclovir and valacyclovir, the leading drugs in the category. Based on these results, we recommend using the herbal Gene-Eden-VIR/Novirin as preventive treatment for oral herpes, and specifically, as an alternative to the acyclovir and valacyclovir drugs.
Catholic University of Central Africa
Title: Study of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain antibiotic sensitivity profiles (collected in Yaoundé from 2009 to 2014) and determination of reference laboratory (Centre Pasteur, Cameroun) role in the surveillance of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
Time : 10:25-10:50
C Y Tayimetha is currently working as a expertise in microbes and infection biology, at Catholic University of Central Africa, Cameroon.
The resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antibiotics as recommended by WHO, poses a real public health problem. Thus, a study of the sensitivity profiles and the determination of the role of the reference laboratory in the surveillance of this resistance were carried out in Yaoundé. The aims of this study were to contribute to the therapeutic management of infected patients with appropriate antibiotics; monitor the resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antibiotics; limit its emergence in order to preserve the recommended antibiotics. Objectives of the study were to study the susceptibility profiles of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antibiotics and to determine the role of the laboratory in monitoring this resistance. This retrospective and prospective study was carried out at Centre Pasteur of Cameroon from 1st January 2009 to 30th September 2014. It consisted of isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains from the human genital specimens, identification and determination of their resistance phenotypes to antibiotics by the diffusion method in agar medium. This highlighted the role of the reference laboratory in resistance monitoring. A total of 193 strains of gonococci were isolated and identified. The most infected age classes were 20-29 and 30-39. Men were more infected than women (sex ratio 2.01). Several phenotypes of resistance have been described. High resistance to penicillin G (93.3%), tetracycline (58.5%) and nalidixic acid (17.6%) were observed. Ceftriaxone, azithromycin, spectinomycin, and chloramphenicol were effective at resistance rates of 1.0%, 2.6%, 3.1% and 7.2%, respectively. The overall percentage of strains producing penicillinase is 81.1%. Only ceftriaxone is still effective among the two WHO recommended molecules in Cameroon. The other (ciprofloxacin) should be monitored. As resistances to nalidixic acid (quinolone marker) have been observed since 2010 and continue to grow up exponentially (25% in 2013 and 50% in 2014). Monitoring Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistances to antibiotics is one of the best strategies to prevent resistances in order to preserve the recommended molecules. Centre Pasteur of Cameroon is the reference laboratory chosen by the WHO for monitoring the resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antibiotics in Central Africa.
Sebelas Maret University
Title: Patient support group in MDR-TB treatment: a study at Moewardi Hospital Surakarta Central Java, Indonesia
Time : 10:50-11:15
Wekadigunawan C S P is currently working as a expertise in healthcare infectious diseases, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia.
Background: Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) have been an applied strategy in Indonesia for years. But, still, Indonesia has challenge to decrease number of patients who decided drop out from treatment. The number of patients with MDR TB increases year to year. The study was carried out in Moewardi Hospital in Surakarta to explore a patient support group in term of contributing patient awareness to complete their treatment course.
Methods: A focus group discussion was conducted in a room at Faculty of Medicine Sebelas Maret University. The respondents are former MDR-TB patients who have been declared as totally cured after two years. Interviews, notes, and then transcript were analyzed using coding to identify emerging patterns and themes. Ethics approval was received from the Health Research Committee of Moewardi Hospital.
Result: Adherence to taking medication for six to nine months or more is very challenging especially for MDR-TB patients who have to take medication for 18 months and more. The themes are: I have been declared as cured after six months of treatment, but why I got the disease again?; the side effects of treatment made me tired; I need a more patient and pleasant health worker and; I am very excited to hear of patients who have successfully recovered from MDR-TB. Most of former MDRTB patients stated that the patient support group is very important to help them in achieving recovery.
Conclusion: Patient support groups have very important role in MDR-TB patients to achieve their recovery.
Izmir Institute of Technology
Title: HIV-1 Tat up-regulates Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI) expression in African Green Monkey (AGM) cells and leads to the suppression of HIV-LTR promoter
Time : 11:35-12:00
Selcuk Ozdemir has expertise in mammalian gene expression analysis, environmental toxicology and animal genetics. He currently works as Assistant Professor at Ataturk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.
Statement of the Problem: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) leads to AIDS in humans by reducing CD4(+) T lymphocytes which are crucial for proper adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses. Old World Monkeys (OWM) on the other hand is resistant to HIV-1 infection. Although these monkeys can be successfully infected by monkey adapted HIV-1 strains, they eventually clear the infection and virus numbers drop to undetectable levels unless the animals are immunecompromised by CD8 cell depletion during and after experimental infections. These results indicate the possibility of the presence of yet unidentified factor(s) that restrict HIV-1 in OWM cells after integration of the viral genome into the host cell. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether any anti-HIV factors were expressed in AGM cells in the presence of HIV-1 Tat protein. Tat is among the first viral proteins produced in infected cells and is known to affect the expression of many human host genes as well as HIV’s own gene expression.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: SLPI was identified by 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry using MALDI TOF. Over expression of SLPI gene was investigated by qRT-PCR on mRNA, and by western blot on protein level, using anti SLPI antibodies. SLPI’s effect on NF-kB and HIV-LTR promoter was investigated through the luciferase reporter gene expression.
Findings: We identified that SLPI expression was highly upregulated in presence of HIV-1 Tat in AGM but not in human cells. Furthermore, we showed that SLPI decreased both NF-kB and HIV-LTR promoter driven luciferase reporter gene expressions.
Conclusion & Significance: SLPI is a potential HIV-1 restricting protein. It leads to reduced viral replication in infected cells and should be further investigated. In such case, SLPI can open new avenues in the treatment of HIV-1 infection.
Universidad Autónoma de Baja California
Time : 12:00-12:25
Alfonso Magaña is on his last year medical student in School of Medicine from Universidad Autonoma de Baja California. He has been part of multiple researches in molecular biology, histology and public health and epidemiology. He has been in a few institutes in research residence in: Laboratorio de Epidemiologia Ecologia Molecular from Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Center for Health and the Environment in University of California Davis and Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, Dr. Manuel Velasco Suarez, Mexico.
Life conditions are considered by the World Health Organization, and the Pan-American Health Organization, as determinants of health, associated with the emergence of diseases. We discovered in Maneadero, Ensenada, Baja California, conditions of sub-developed countries with dirt floors, absent of public services, among others; it is a population highly susceptible to diseases, and a wide outcome of clinical manifestations. They present a higher prevalence on chronic-degenerative illness as rich countries. That is why Mexico is in an epidemiological transition, showing health problems, because poverty is highly prevalent(43.6% of population), and significant prevalence of contagious diseases, but, also non-transmissible, like cardiovascular disease as the first cause of death. We realized a descriptive-analytical and transversal study, with a random population of 29 subjects from nearly 400 patients in our data bank who attended a medical program (Clinica Movil) from July 13-16 of 2017. Inclusion criteria: patients would have filled a questionnaire (from INEGI: ENGASTO 2012) for evaluate economic conditions, and medical history. We analyzed the data on Excel software, and made a correlational analysis through odds ratio (OR). Our results showed the highest frequency of diseases on: Chronic degenerative, musculoskeletal and Infectious. Population in overcrowding has an OR=2 for infectious diseases, those without medical attention has an OR=3.5 to have a second disease; and OR=2.77 for a lack of money to eat in the last three months. We conclude there is a relationship between health determinants and disease, perhaps not the main etiology, but, improve life conditions, it is essential in the attempt of decrease prevalence and control diseases.